High Performance Datacenter Networks: Architectures, Algorithms, & Opportunities (Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture)

By Dennis Abts

Datacenter networks give you the communique substrate for big parallel desktops that shape the atmosphere for prime functionality computing (HPC) structures and sleek web purposes. The layout of latest datacenter networks is stimulated by means of an array of functions starting from communique extensive climatology, advanced fabric simulations and molecular dynamics to such web functions as internet seek, language translation, collaborative web purposes, streaming video and voice-over-IP. For either Supercomputing and Cloud Computing the community allows allotted purposes to speak and interoperate in an orchestrated and effective means. This e-book describes the layout and engineering tradeoffs of datacenter networks. It describes interconnection networks from topology and community structure to routing algorithms, and provides possibilities for making the most of the rising know-how tendencies which are influencing router microarchitecture. With the emergence of "many-core" processor chips, it truly is obtrusive that we'll additionally want "many-port" routing chips to supply a bandwidth-rich community to prevent the functionality restricting results of Amdahl's legislations. we offer an outline of traditional topologies and their routing algorithms and convey how expertise, signaling premiums and inexpensive optics are motivating new community topologies that scale as much as hundreds of thousands of hosts. The publication additionally offers special case stories of 2 excessive functionality parallel desktops and their networks. desk of Contents: creation / heritage / Topology fundamentals / High-Radix Topologies / Routing / Scalable swap Microarchitecture / approach Packaging / Case reviews / last comments

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Five. three. three innovative Adaptive Routing (PAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. three. four Dimensionally-Adaptive, Load-balanced (DAL) Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . oblique Adaptive Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routing set of rules Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. five. 1 instance 1: Folded-Clos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. five. 2 instance 2: Flattened Butterfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five. five. three instance three: Dragonfly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 forty forty forty forty-one forty-one forty two forty two forty three forty three forty three forty four forty five forty five forty nine Scalable change Microarchitecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty one 6. 1 6. 2 6. three 6. four 6. five Router Microarchitecture fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scaling baseline microarchitecture to excessive radix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . totally Buffered Crossbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchical Crossbar structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of High-Radix Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty one fifty two fifty four fifty five fifty seven ix 6. five. 1 Cray YARC Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty seven 6. five. 2 Mellanox InfiniScale IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty nine 7 approach Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty three 7. 1 7. 2 7. three eight Case reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy three eight. 1 eight. 2 eight. three nine Packaging hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty three energy supply and cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty three Topology and Packaging Locality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty eight Cray BlackWidow Multiprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 1. 1 BlackWidow Node association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 1. 2 High-radix Folded-Clos community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 1. three procedure Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 1. four High-radix Fat-tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 1. five Packet structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 1. 6 community Layer circulation regulate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 1. 7 Data-link Layer Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 1. eight Serializer/Deserializer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cray XT Multiprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 2. 1 three-D torus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 2. 2 Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 2. three circulation keep watch over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eight. 2. four SeaStar Router Microarchitecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . precis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy three seventy three seventy four seventy five seventy six seventy seven seventy eight seventy eight eighty eighty eighty one eighty two eighty four eighty four 88 remaining comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ninety one nine. 1 nine. 2 nine. three Programming versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ninety one cord protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ninety one possibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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